Kelimutu National Park

The topography of Kelimutu National Park varies from gently rolling hills to more mountainous relief.

Some of the plants that grow in the Park area are kayu mata (Albizia montana), kebu (Homalanthus giganteus), tokotaka (Putranjiva roxburghii), uwi rora (Ardisia humilis), longgo baja (Drypetes subcubica), toko keo (Cyrtandra sp.), kayu deo (Trema cannabina), kayu bu (Casuarina equisetifolia), kelo (Ficus villosa), and ampupu (Eucalyptus urophylla).


Kelimutu Lake

Kelimutu Lake

The Park provides habitat for at least 19 restricted-range bird species including the near threatened Flores green pigeon (Treron floris), Wallace’s scops owl (Otus silvicola), chestnut-backed jungle flycatcher (Rhinomyias oscillans), bare-throated whistler (Pachycephala nudigula), little minivet (Pericrocotus lansbergei), russet-capped tesia (Tesia everetti), thick-billed white-eye (Heleia crassirostris), crested white-eye (Lophozosterops dohertyi), golden-rumped flowerpecker (Dicaeum annae), Flores monarch (Monarcha sacerdotum), flame-breasted sunbird (Nectarinia solaris), and Flores hawk-eagle (Spizaetus floris).

The four endemic mammals include two montane rodents: Bunomys naso and Rattus hainaldi.

Not only does it have high biodiversity, this Park is also the location of a unique natural phenomenon-three different-coloured lakes at the peak of Mt. Kelimutu (1,690 m asl.). The first lake is named Tiwu Ata Mbupu (lake of people spirits), the second is named Tiwu Nuwa Muri Koo Fai (lake of young people spirits), and the third is Tiwu Ata Polo (lake of fortune tellers spirits). The first and second lakes are situated close together, while the third lake is about 1.5 km to the west. The colour of the water in each lake is different and the colours change from time to time, particularly that of Tiwu Nuwa Muri Koo Fai Lake: twenty-five years ago, its water changed colour twelve times. Thought to be caused by the volcanic activity of Kelimutu, it has also been suggested that the changes in colour are due to refraction of the sun’s rays, microbiota in the water, dissolution of chemical substances, and the reflection of the colour of the lake walls and bottom.

The nature riches of the Park are complemented by its cultural heritage. Traditional houses, dances, and weaving are still in evidence among the local people. The art of producing the highly complex patterns in the woven cloth is very interesting. Great skill and imagination are involved and the production process is different from other ikat weaves in Indonesia.


Interesting Locations/Attractions

Mt. Kelimutu: the peak of Mt. Kelimutu is the best place to view the three lakes.

Moni: thermal springs, waterfalls, and ikat weaving.


How to Reach the Park

Kupang-Ende, about 40 minutes by plane; or Bima-Ende, about 90 minutes by plane. From Ende, proceed to the nearest village, Desa Koanara: this takes about 3 hours (93 km). Then on foot from Desa Koanara via Desa Koposili-Desa Manakuko to Kelimutu Lake, about 2.5 hours.

Best time of year to visit: July to September.


Environment Fact

Total area 5,356,5 hectares

Located in Regency of Ende (Province of East Nusa Tenggara)

Temperature 25° – 31° C

Rainfall 1,615 – 3,363 mm/annual

Altitude 1,500 – 1,731 m asl.

Geographical location 121°44′ – 121°51′ E; 8°43′ – 8°48′ S


Official Information

Office: Jl. Achmad Yani 34

Ende Flores, East Nusa Tenggara

Phone: +62-381-22478


Source: The Ministry of Forestry Republic of Indonesia

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